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A. Joshi, K. Thiel, K. Jog, R. Dringen (2019)
Uptake of intact copper oxide nanoparticles causes acute toxicity in cultured glial cells.
Neurochem. Res., in press.

S. Bemowsky, A. Rother, W. Willmann, J. Köser, M. Markiewicz, R. Dringen, S. Stolte (2019)
Quantification and biodegradability assessment of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid adsorbed on iron oxide nanoparticles.
Nanoscale Advances, in press.

C. Arend, E. Ehrke, R. Dringen (2019)
Consequences of a metabolic glucose-depletion on the survival and the metabolism of cultured rat astrocytes.
Neurochem. Res., in press.

W. Willmann, R. Dringen (2019)
How to study the uptake and toxicity of nanoparticles in cultured brain cells: The dos and don't forgets.
Neurochem. Res. 44, 1330-1345.

J. Steinmeier, R. Dringen (2019)
Exposure of cultured astrocytes to menadione triggers rapid radical formation, glutathione oxidation and Mrp1-mediated export of glutathione disulfide.
Neurochem. Res. 44, 1167-1181.

J. Raabe, C. Arend, J. Steinmeier, R. Dringen (2019)
Dicoumarol inhibits multidrug resistance protein 1-mediated export processes in cultural primary rat astrocytes.
Neurochem. Res. 44, 333-346.

E.-M. Blumrich, R. Dringen (2019)
Metformin accelerates glycolytic lactate production in cultured primary cerebellar granule neurons.
Neurochem. Res. 44, 188-199.

W. Willmann, R. Dringen (2018)
Monitoring of the cytoskeleton-dependent in intracellular trafficking of fluorescent iron oxide nanoparticle by nanoparticle pulse-chase experiments in C6 glioma cells.
Neurochem. Res. 43, 2055-2071.

J. Bruck, R. Dringen, A. Amasuno, I. Pau-Charles, K. Goreshi (2018)
A review oft he mechanisms of action of dimethylfumarate (DMF) in the treatment of psoriasis. 
Exp. Dermatol. 6, 611-624.

K. Stapelfeldt, E. Ehrke, J. Steinmeier, W. Rastedt, R. Dringen (2017)
Menadione-mediated WST1 reduction assay for the determination of metabolic activity of cultured neural cells.
Anal. Biochem. 538, 42-52.

F. Bulcke, R. Dringen, I.F. Scheiber (2017)
Neurotoxicity of copper.
Adv. Neurobiol. 18: Neurotoxicity of Metals (M. Aschner, L. Costa, eds.) 313-342, Springer, New York.

W. Rastedt, K. Thiel, R. Dringen (2017)
Uptake of fluorescent iron oxide nanoparticles in C6 glioma cells.
Biomed. Phys. Eng. Express 3, 035007.

W. Rastedt, E.-M. Blumrich, R. Dringen (2017)
Metabolism of mannose in cultured primary rat neurons.
Neurochem. Res 42, 2282-2293.

M.C. Hohnholt, E.-M. Blumrich, H.S. Waagepetersen, R. Dringen (2017)
The anti-diabetic drug metformin decreases mitochondrial respiration and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary rat astrocytes.
J. Neurosci. Res. 95, 2307-2320.

L. Derr, N. Hildebrand, L. Treccani, R. Dringen, K. Rezwan, L. Colombi Ciacchi (2017)
Physisorption of α-chymotrypsin on SiO2 and TiO2: a comparative study via experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.
Biointerphases 11, 011007.

A. Westhaus, E.M. Blumrich, R. Dringen (2017)
The antidiabetic drug metformin stimulates glycolytic lactate production in cultured primary rat astrocytes.   
Neurochem. Res. 42, 294-305.

M.C. Hohnholt. E.-M. Blumrich, H.S. Waagepetersen, R. Dringen (2017)
The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tryosine kinase inhibitor tryphostin 23.                                           
Neurochem. Int. 102, 13-21.

C. Arend, A. Rother, S. Stolte, R. Dringen (2016)
Consequences of a chromic exposure of cultured brain astrocytes to the anti-retroviral drug efavirenz and its primary metabolite 8-hydroxy efavirenz.
Neurochem. Res. 41, 3278-3288.

R. Dringen, S. Spiller, S. Neumann, Y. Koehler (2016)
Uptake metabolic effects and toxicity of arsenate and arsenite in astrocytes.  
Neurochem. Res. 41, 465-475.

F. Bulcke, R. Dringen (2016)
Handling of copper and copper oxide nanoparticles by astrocytes.  
Neurochem. Res. 41, 33-43.

A. Joshi, W. Rastedt, K. Faber, A.G. Schultz, F. Bulcke, R. Dringen (2016)
Uptake and toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in C6 glioma cells.
Neurochem. Res. 41, 3004-3019.

A. Sulce, F. Bulcke, M. Schowalter, A. Rosenauer, R. Dringen, S. Kunz (2016)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation ability and stability of small Copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs).
RSC Advances, 6, 76980-76988

S. Hagl, H. Asseburg, M. Heinrich, N. Sus, E.-M. Blumrich, R. Dringen, J. Frank, G.P. Eckert (2016)
Effects of long turn rice bran extract suplementation on survival, cognition and mitochrondrial function in NMRI mice.
Neuromol. Med. 18, 347-363.

E.-M. Blumrich, R. Kadam, R. Dringen (2016)
The protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23 strongly accelerates glycolytic lactate production in cultured primary astrocytes.          
Neurochem. Res. 41, 2607-2618.

Y.-Q. Dang, R. Dringen, C. Petters, W. Rastedt, J. Köser, J. Filser, S. Stolte (2016)
Toxicity of dimercaptosuccinate coated and un-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards aquatic organisms.
Environ. Sci. Nano 3, 754-767.

C. Petters, K. Thiel, R. Dringen (2016)
Lysosomal iron liberation is responsible for the vulnerability of brain microglial cells to iron oxide nanoparticles: comparison with neurons and astrocytes. 
Nanotoxicology 10, 332-342.

R. Dringen, M. Brandmann, M.C. Hohnholt, E.-M. Blumrich (2015)
Glutathione-dependent detoxification processes in astrocytes.  
Neurochem. Res. 40, 2570-2582.

S. Shahabi , S. Döscher, T. Bollhorst, L. Treccani , M. Maas, R. Dringen, K. Rezwan (2015)
Enhancing cellular uptake and doxorubicin delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticles via surface functionalization: effects of serum.   
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 26880-26891.

S.R. Robinson, A. Lee, G.M. Bishop, H. Czerwinska, R. Dringen (2015)
Inhibition of astrocytic glutamine synthetase by lead is associated with a slowed clearance of hydrogen peroxide by the glutathione system.   
Front. Integr. Neurosci. 9, article 61.

S. Shahabi, L. Treccani, R. Dringen, K. Rezwan (2015)
Modulation of silica nanoparticle uptake into human osteoblast cells by variation of the ratio of amno and sulfonate surface groups: effects of serum.
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 13821-13833.

S. Shahabi, L. Treccani, R. Dringen and K. Rezwan (2015)
Utilizing the protein corona round silicananoparticles for dual drug loading and release.
Nanoscale 7, 16251-16265.

F. Bulcke, P. Santofimia-Castaño, A. Gonzalez-Mateos, R. Dringen (2015)
Modulation of copper accumulation and copper-induced toxicity by antioxidants and copper chelators in cultured primary brain astrocytes.   
J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 32, 168-176.

L. Derr, R. Dringen, L. Treccani, N. Hildebrand, L. Colombi Ciacchi, K. Rezwan (2015)
Physisorption of enzymatically active chymotrypsin on titania colloidal particles.   
J. Coloid Interface Sci. 455, 236-244.

M.C. Hohnholt, E.M. Blumrich, R. Dringen (2015)
Multiassay analysis of the toxic potential of the hydrogen peroxide on cultured neurons.   
J. Neurosci. Res. 93, 1127-1137.

E. Ehrke, C. Arend, R. Dringen (2015)
3-Bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.   
J. Neurosci. Res. 93, 1138-1146.

M.C. Hohnholt, E.M. Blumrich, Y. Koehler, R. Dringen (2015)
Arsenate stimulates glutathione export from viable cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons.   
Neurochem. Res. 40, 561-571.

S. Shahabi, L. Treccani, R. Dringen and K. Rezwan (2015)
Dual fluorophore doped silica nanoparticles for cellular localization studies in multiple stained cells.
Acta Biomat. 14, 208-216.

T. Mordhorst, S. Awal, S. Jordan, C. Petters, L. Sartoris, R. Dringen, U. Bickmeyer (2015)
The chemically synthesized ageladine A-derivative LysoGlow84 stains lysosomes in viable mammalian brain cells and specific structures in the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano.   
Mar. Drugs 13, 920-935.

F. Bulcke, R. Dringen (2015)
Copper oxide nanoparticles stimulate glycolytic flux and increase the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins in cultured astrocytes.   
Neurochem. Res. 40, 15-26.
L. Derr, S. Steckbeck, R. Dringen, L. Colombi-Ciacchi, L. Treccani and K. Rezwan (2015)   
Assessment of the proteolytic activity of α-chymotrypsin immobilized on colloidal particles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.   
Anal. Lett. 48, 424-441.

C. Petters, R. Dringen (2015)
Accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured primary neurons.   
Neurochem. Int. 81, 1-9.

T. Bollhorst, S. Shahabi, K. Wörz, C. Petters, R. Dringen, M. Maas, K. Rezwan (2015)
Bifunctional submicron colloidosomes co-assembled from fluorescent and superparamagnetic nanoparticles.   
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 118-123.

S. Ahlberg, A. Antonopulos, J. Diendorf, R. Dringen, M. Epple, R. Flöck, W. Goedecke, C. Graf, N. Haberl, J. Helmlinger, F. Herzog, F. Heuer, S. Hirn, C. Johannes, S. Kittler, M. Köller, K. Korn, W.G. Kreyling, F. Krombach, J. Lademann, K. Loza, E.M. Luther, M. Malissek, M.C. Meinke, D. Nordmeyer, A. Pailliart, J. Raabe, F. Rancan, B. Rothen-Rutishauser, E. Rühl, C. Schleh, A. Seibel, C. Sengstock, L. Treuel, A. Vogt, K. Weber, R. Zellner (2014)
PVP-coated, negatively charged silver nanoparticles: A multi-center study of their physicochemical characteristics, cell culture and in vivo experiments.
Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 5, 1944-1965.

C. Petters, E. Irrsack, M. Koch, R. Dringen (2014)
Uptake and metabolism of iron oxide nanoparticles in brain cells.   
Neurochem. Res. 39, 1648-1660.

I.F. Scheiber, J.F.B. Mercer, R. Dringen (2014)
Metabolism and functions of copper in brain. 
Prog. Neurobiol. 116, 33-57.

K. Tulpule, M.C. Hohnholt, J. Hirrlinger, R. Dringen (2014)
Primary cultures of rat astrocytes and neurons as model systems to study metabolism and metabolite export from brain cells.
Neuromethods 90: Brain Energy Metabolism (J. Hirrlinger, H. Waagepetersen, eds), 45-72.

F. Bulcke, K. Thiel, R. Dringen (2014)
Uptake and toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in cultured primary brain astrocytes.   
Nanotoxicology 8, 775-785.

N. Tadepalle, Y. Koehler, M. Brandmann, N. Meyer, R. Dringen (2014)
Arsenite stimulates glutathione export and glycolytic flux in viable primary rat brain astrocytes. 
Neurochem. Int. 76, 1-11.

J. Wehling, R. Dringen, R.N. Zare, M. Maas, K. Rezwan (2014)
Bactericidal activity of partially oxidized nanodiamonds.   
ACS Nano 8, 6475-6483.

Y. Koehler, E.M. Luther, S. Meyer, T. Schwerdtle, R. Dringen (2014)
Uptake and toxicity of arsenite and arsenate in cultured brain astrocytes.   
J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 28, 328-337.

M. Brandmann, M.C. Hohnholt, C. Petters, R. Dringen (2014)
Antiretroviral protease inhibitors accelerate glutathione export from viable cultured rat neurons.
Neurochem. Res. 39, 883-892.

M.C. Hohnholt, R. Dringen (2014)
Short time exposure to hydrogen peroxide induces sustained glutathione export from cultured neurons.   
Free Rad. Biol. Med. 70, 33-44.

C. Petters, F. Bulcke, K. Thiel, U. Bickmeyer, R. Dringen (2014)
Uptake of fluorescent iron oxide nanoparticles by oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells.  
Neurochem. Res. 39, 372-383.

C. Petters, R. Dringen (2014)
Comparison of primary and secondary rat astrocyte cultures regarding glucose and glutathione metabolism and the accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles.
Neurochem. Res. 39, 46-58.

K. Tulpule, M.C. Hohnholt, R. Dringen (2013)       
Formaldehyde metabolism and formaldehyde-induced stimulation of lactate production and glutathione export in cultured neurons.     
J. Neurochem. 125, 260-272.

N. Meyer, Y. Koehler, K. Tulpule, R. Dringen (2013)        
Arsenate accumulation and arsenate-induced GSH export in astrocyte-rich primary cultures.
Neurochem. Int. 62, 1012-1019.

F. Meder, H. Hintz, Y. Koehler, M.M. Schmidt, L. Treccani, R. Dringen, K. Rezwan (2013)
Adsorption and orientation of the physiological extracellular peptide glutathione disulfide on surface functionalized colloidal alumina particles.       
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 6307-6316.

E.M. Luther, C. Petters, F. Bulcke, A. Kaltz, K. Thiel, U. Bickmeyer, R. Dringen (2013)         
Endocytotic uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured microglial cells.  
Acta Biomat. 9 8454-8465.

Y. Koehler, R. Dringen (2013)         
Arsenate uptake by cultured primary rat astrocytes.         
Neurochem. Res. 38, 1785-1790.

K. Tietje, G. Rivera-Ingraham, C. Petters, D. Abele, R. Dringen, U. Bickmeyer (2013)     
Reporter dyes demonstrate functional expression of multidrug resistance proteins in the marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano: the sponge-derived dye Ageladine A is not a substrate of these transporters.  
Mar. Drugs 11, 3951-3969.

M. Brandmann, U. Nehls, R. Dringen (2013)         
8-Hydroxy-efavirenz, the primary metabolite of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz, stimulates the glycolytic flux in cultured rat astrocytes.
Neurochem. Res. 38, 2524-2534.

J. Filser, D. Arndt, J. Baumann, M. Geppert, S. Hackmann, E.M. Luther, C. Pade, K. Prenzel, H. Wigger, J. Arning, M.C. Hohnholt, J. Köser, A. Kück, E. Lesnikov, J. Neumann, S. Schütrumpf, J. Warrelmann, M. Bäumer, R. Dringen, A. von Gleich, P. Swiderek, J. Thöming (2013)        
Intrinsically green iron oxide nanoparticles? A holistic approach from synthesis to scenario modelling.     
Nanoscale 5, 1034-1046.

M. Geppert, C. Petters, K. Thiel, R. Dringen (2013)         
Presence of serum alters properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and lowers their accumulation by cultured brain astrocytes.    
J. Nanopart. Res. 15, 1349.

I.F. Scheiber, R. Dringen and J.F.B. Mercer (2013)
Copper: effects of deficiency and overload. Met. Ions Life Sci. 13, 359-387.

C. Arend, M. Brandmann, R. Dringen (2013)        
The antiretroviral protease inhibitor ritonavir accelerates glutathione export from cultured primary astrocytes.    
Neurochem. Res. 38, 732-741.

M.C. Hohnholt, M. Geppert, E.M. Luther, C. Petters, F. Bulcke, R. Dringen (2013)     
Handling of iron oxide and silver nanoparticles by astrocytes.      
Neurochem. Res. 38, 227-239.

R. Dringen, I.F. Scheiber, J.F.B. Mercer (2013)         
Copper metabolism of astrocytes.   
Front. Aging Neurosci. 5, article 9, 1-4.

I.F. Scheiber, R. Dringen (2013)
Astrocyte functions in the copper homeostasis of the brain.        
Neurochem. Int. 62, 556-565.

K. Tulpule, R. Dringen (2013)         
Formaldehyde in brain: an overlooked player in neurodegeneration?          
J. Neurochem. 127, 7-21.

M.C. Hohnholt, R. Dringen (2013)   
Uptake and metabolism of iron and iron oxide nanoparticles in astrocytes.    
Biochem. Soc. Trans. 41, 1588-1592.

I.F. Scheiber, R. Dringen, J.F.B. Mercer (2013)         
Copper: effects of deficiency and overload. Met. Ions Life Sci. 13, 359-387.

E.M. Luther, M.M. Schmidt, J. Diendorf, M. Epple, R. Dringen (2012)          
Upregulation of metallothioneins after exposure of cultured primary astrocytes to silver nanoparticles.   
Neurochem. Res. 37, 1639-1648.

M. Geppert, M.C Hohnholt, S. Nürnberger, R. Dringen (2012)     
Ferritin upregulation and transient ROS production in cultured brain astrocytes after loading with iron oxide nanoparticles.
Acta Biomat. 8, 3832-3839.

S. Dauth, M.M. Schmidt, M. Rehders, F. Dietz, S. Kelm, R. Dringen, K. Brix (2012)
Characterization and metabolism of astroglia-rich primary cultures from cathepsin K-deficient mice.  
Biol. Chem. 393, 959-970.

M.M. Schmidt, Y. Koehler, L. Derr, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan, R. Dringen (2012)
Interaction of the physiological tripeptide glutathione with colloidal alumina particles.     
J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 23136-23142.

K. Tulpule, M.M. Schmidt, K. Boecker, O. Goldbaum, C. Richer-Landsberg, R. Dringen (2012)         
Formaldehyde induces rapid glutathione export from viable oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells.
Neurochem. Int. 61, 1302-1313.

M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2012)   
GSH synthesis and metabolism.     
In Advances in Neurobiology, Vol. 4: Neural Metabolism in Vivo (R. Gruetter, I.Y. Choi, Eds) Springer, New York, 1029-1050.

M. Brandmann, K. Tulpule, M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2012)     
The antiretroviral protease inhibitors indinavir and nelfinavir stimulate Mrp1-mediated GSH export from cultured brain astrocytes.        
J. Neurochem. 120, 78-92.

M.C. Lamkowsky, M. Geppert, M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2012)
Magnetic field-induced acceleration of the accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes.       
J Biomed Mat. Res. A 100A, 323-334.

K. Tulpule, R. Dringen (2012)         
Formate generated by cellular oxidation of formaldehyde accelerates the glycolytic flux in cultured astrocytes.    
Glia 60, 582-593.

I.F. Scheiber, M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2012)    
Copper export by cultured astrocytes.        
Neurochem. Int. 60, 292-300.

T.N. Dang, G.M. Bishop, R. Dringen, S.R. Robinson (2011)        
The metabolism and toxicity of hemin in astrocytes.         
Glia 59, 1540-1550.

M.C. Hohnholt, M. Geppert, R. Dringen (2011)     
Treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles induces ferritin synthesis but not oxidative stress in oligodendroglial cell.           
Acta Biomat. 7, 3946-3954.

R. Dringen, Y. Koehler, L. Derr, G. Tomba, M.M. Schmidt, L. Treccani, L. Colombi Ciacchi, K. Rezwan (2011)       
Adsorption and reduction of glutathione disulfide on α-Al2O3 nanoparticles: experiments and modeling.  
Langmuir 27, 9449-9457.

E.M. Luther, Y. Koehler, J. Diendorf, M. Epple, R. Dringen (2011)          
Accumulation of PVP-coated silver nanoparticles by cultured astrocytes.    
Nanotechnology 22, 375101.

K. Ghoreschi, J. Brück, C. Keller, C. Deng, H. Peng, O. Rothfuss, R.Z. Hussain, A.R. Gocke, A. Respa, I. Glocova, N. Valtcheva, E. Alexander, S. Feil, R. Feil, K. Schulze-Osthoff, R.A. Rupec, A.E. Lovett-Racke, R. Dringen, M.K. Racke, M. Röcken (2011)          
Fumarates improve psoriasis and multiple sclerosis by inducing type II dendritic cells.
J. Exp. Med. 208, 2291-2303.

M.C. Hohnholt, R. Dringen (2011)   
Iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and glutathione depletion after accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by oligodendroglial cells.
J. Nanopart. Res. 13, 6761-6774.

G.M. Bishop, T.D. Dang, R. Dringen, S.R. Robinson (2011)        
Accumulation of non-transferrin-bound iron by neurons, astrocytes and microglia.      
Neurotox. Res. 19, 443-451.

S.P. Fernandes, R. Dringen, A. Lawen, S.R. Robinson (2011)
Inactivation of astrocytic glutamine synthetase by hydrogen peroxide requires iron. 
Neurosci. Lett. 490, 27-30.

K. Tulpule, R. Dringen (2011)
Formaldehyde stimulates Mrp1-mediated glutathione deprivation of cultured astrocytes. 
J. Neurochem. 116, 626-635.

J. Strahl, R. Dringen, M.M. Schmidt, S. Hardenberg, D. Abele (2011)          
Metabolic and physiological responses in tissues of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica to oxygen deficiency.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A 158, 513-519.

M.M. Schmidt, A. Rohwedder, R. Dringen (2011)  
Effects of chlorinated acetates on the glutathione metabolism and on glycolysis of cultured astrocytes.    
Neurotox. Res. 19, 628-637.

I.F. Scheiber, R. Dringen (2011)     
Copper accelerates glycolytic flux in cultured astrocytes. Neurochem. Res. 36, 894-903.

M. Geppert, M.C Hohnholt, K. Thiel, S. Nürnberger, I. Grunwald, K. Rezwan, R. Dringen (2011) Uptake of dimercaptosuccinate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes.   
Nanotechnology 22, 145101.

Y.C. Tseng, R.D. Chen, M. Lucassen, M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen, D. Abele, P.P. Hwang (2011)
Exploring uncoupling proteins and antioxidant mechanisms under acute cold exposure in brains of fish.       
PLoS ONE 6, e18180.

T.N. Dang, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen, G.M. Bishop (2011)        
Uptake, metabolism and toxicity of hemin in cultured neurons.    
Neurochem. Int. 58, 804-811.

I.F. Scheiber, R. Dringen (2011)     
Copper-treatment increases the cellular GSH content and accelerates GSH export from cultured rat astrocytes.   
Neurosci. Lett. 498, 42-46.

M. Hohnholt, M. Geppert, R. Dringen (2010) Effects of iron chelators, iron salts, and iron oxide nanoparticles on the proliferation and the iron content of oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells.
Neurochem. Res. 35, 1259-1268.

I.F. Scheiber, M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2010)    
Zinc prevents the copper-induced damage of cultured astrocytes.          
Neurochem. Int. 57, 314-322.

M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2010) Fumaric acid diesters deprive cultured primary astrocytes rapidly of glutathione. 
Neurochem. Int. 57, 460-467.

S.P. Fernandes, R. Dringen, A. Lawen, S.R. Robinson (2010)    
Neurons express glutamine synthetase when deprived of glutamine or interaction with astrocytes.  
J. Neurochem. 114, 1527-1536.

M.M. Schmidt, H. Greb, H. Koliwer-Brandl, S. Kelm, R. Dringen (2010)          
2-Deoxyribose deprives cultured astrocytes of their glutathione.  
Neurochem. Res. 35, 1848-1856.

M.C Hohnholt, M. Geppert, S. Nürnberger, J van Byern, I. Grunwald, R. Dringen (2010)     
Advanced Biomaterials: Accumulation of citrate-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes.  
Adv. Eng. Mater. 12, B690-B694.

R. Dringen, J. Hirrlinger (2010)       
Anti-oxidative defense of brain microglial cells.      
In Micronutriens and Brain Health (L. Packer, H. Sies, M. Eggersdorf, E. Cadenas, Eds)  Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton FL, USA, 391-399.

J. Hirrlinger, R. Dringen (2010)       
The cytosolic redox state of astrocytes: Maintenance, regulation and functional implications for metabolite trafficking.    
Brain Res. Rev. 63, 177-188.

K. Tulpule, S.R. Robinson, G.M. Bishop, R. Dringen (2010)        
Uptake of ferrous iron by cultured rat astrocytes.  
J. Neurosci. Res. 88, 563-571.

T.N. Dang, G.M. Bishop, R. Dringen, S.R. Robinson (2010)        
The putative heme transporter HCP1 is expressed in cultured astrocytes and contributes to the uptake of hemin.
Glia 58, 55-65.

I.F. Scheiber, J.F.B. Mercer, R. Dringen (2010)    
Copper accumulation by cultured astrocytes.
Neurochem. Int. 56, 451-460.

A. Thiessen, M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2010)     
Fumaric acid dialkyl esters deprive cultured rat oligodendroglial cells of glutathione and upregulate the expression of heme oxygenase 1.
Neurosci. Lett. 475, 56-60.

G.M. Bishop, I.F. Scheiber, R. Dringen, S.R. Robinson (2010)    
Synergistic accumulation of iron and zinc by cultured astrocytes.
J. Neural Transm. 117, 809-817.

J.R. Liddell, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen, G.M. Bishop (2010)      
Astrocytes retain their antioxidative defences into advanced old age.          
Glia 58, 1500-1509.

R. Dringen (2009)
Neuron-glia coupling in glutathione metabolism.          
In: The New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (L. Squire, T. Albright, F. Bloom, F. Gage, N. Spitzer, Eds)  Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 733-737.

M.M. Schmidt, R. Dringen (2009)   
Differential effects of iodoacetamide and iodoacetate on glycolysis and glutathione metabolism of cultured astrocytes.      
Front. Neuroenerg. 1, 1-10.

J.R. Liddell, C. Zwingmann, M.M. Schmidt, A. Thiessen, D. Leibfritz, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen (2009)   
Sustained hydrogen peroxide stress decreases lactate production by cultured astrocytes.
J. Neurosci. Res. 87, 2696-2708.

M. Geppert, M. Hohnholt, L. Gaetjen, I. Grunwald, M. Bäumer, R. Dringen (2009)         
Accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured brain astrocytes.          
J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 5, 285-293.

S.R. Robinson, T.N. Dang, R. Dringen, G.M. Bishop (2009)        
Hemin toxicity: a preventable source of brain damage following hemorrhagic stroke.  
Redox Rep. 14, 228-235.

J. Arning, R. Dringen,M. Schmidt, A. Thiessen,S. Stolte, M. Matzke, U. Bottin-Weber, B. Caesar-Geertz, B. Jastorff, J. Ranke (2008)
Structure-activity relationships for the impact of selected isothiazol-3-one biocides on glutathione metabolism and glutathione reductase of the human liver cell line Hep G2.    
Toxicology 246, 203-212.

J. Frade, S. Pope, M. Schmidt, R. Dringen, R. Barbosa, J. Pocock, J. Laranjinha,  S. Heales (2008)         
Glutamate induces release of glutathione from cultured rat astrocytes – A possible neuroprotective mechanism?    
J. Neurochem. 105, 1144-1152.

S. Rana, R. Dringen (2007) 
Gap junction hemichannel-mediated export of GSH from astrocytes.
Neurosci. Lett. 415, 45-48.

G.M. Bishop, R. Dringen, S.R. Robinson (2007)   
Zinc stimulates the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits glutathione reductase in astrocytes.    
Free Radial Biol. Med. 42, 1222-1230.

R. Dringen, H.H. Hoepken, T. Minich, C. Ruedig (2007)   
Pentose phosphate pathway and NADPH metabolism.    
In Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology Vol 5: Neural Energy Utilization (G. Dienel, G. Gibson, Eds) Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 41-62.

R. Dringen, J.R. Liddell, T. Knorpp, S.R. Robinson (2006) Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide by astrocytes.           
In Hepathic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism (D. Häussinger, G. Kircheis, F. Schliess, Eds) Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 50-59.

R. Dringen, G.M. Bishop, M. Koeppe, T. Dang, S. R. Robinson(2007)          
The pivotal role of astrocytes in the metabolism of iron in the brain.          
Neurochem. Res. 32, 1884-1890.

R. Dringen (2005) Oxidative and anti-oxidative potential of brain microglial cells.
Antioxid. Redox Signal. 7, 1223-1233.

H.M. El-Tahir, F. Dietz, R. Dringen, K. Schwabe, K. Strenge, S. Kelm, M.M. Abouzied, V. Gieselmann, S. Franken (2006)         
Expression of hepatoma-derived growth factor family members in the adult central nervous system.         
BMC Neurosci. 7, 6.

T. Minich, J. Riemer, J.B. Schulz, P. Wielinga, J. Wijnhold, R. Dringen (2006)
The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes.          
J. Neurochem. 97, 373-384.

R. Dringen, J.R. Liddell, T. Knorpp, S.R. Robinson (2006)
Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide by astrocytes.           
In Hepathic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism (D. Häussinger, G. Kircheis, F. Schliess, Eds) Springer Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 50-59.

J.R. Liddell, H.H. Hoepken, P.J. Crack, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen (2006)
Glutathione peroxidase 1 and glutathione are required to protect mouse astrocytes from iron-mediated hydrogen peroxide toxicity.
J. Neurosci. Res. 84, 578-586.

T. Knorpp, S.R. Robinson, P.J. Crack, R. Dringen (2006)
Glutathione peroxidase-1 contributes to the protection of glutamine synthetase in astrocytes during oxidative stress.   
J. Neural Transm. 113, 1145-1155.

J.R. Liddell, R. Dringen, P.J. Crack, S.R. Robinson (2006)         
Glutathione peroxidase 1 and a high cellular GSH concentration are essential for effective organic hydroperoxide detoxification in astrocytes.    
Glia 54, 873-879.

J. Waak, R. Dringen (2006) 
Formation and rapid export of the monochlorobimane-glutathione conjugate in cultured rat astrocytes.
Neurochem. Res. 3

E. Biagiotti, P. Ferri, R. Dringen, P. del Grande, P. Ninfali (2005)
Glucose-6-phosphate and NADPH-consuming enzymes in the rat olfactory bulb.
J. Neurosci. Res. 80, 434-441.

R. Dringen (2005) Oxidative and anti-oxidative potential of brain microglial cells.
Antioxid. Redox Signal. 7, 1223-1233.

J. Lotharius, J. Falsig, J. van Beek, S. Payne, R. Dringen, P. Brundin, M. Leist (2005)         
Progressive degeneration of human mesencephalic neuron-derived cells triggered by dopamine-dependent oxidative stress is dependent on the mixed lineage kinase pathway.        
J. Neurosci. 25, 6329-6342.

J. Hirrlinger, H. Moeller, F. Kirchhoff, R. Dringen (2005)   
Expression of multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) in astrocytes of the mouse brain: a single cell RT-PCR study.  
Neurochem. Res. 30, 1237-1244.

J. Hirrlinger, R. Dringen (2005)       
Multidrug resistance protein 1-mediated export of glutathione and glutathione disulphide from brain astrocytes.         
Methods Enzymol. 400, 395-409.

R. Dringen, P. Pawlowski, J. Hirrlinger (2005)       
Peroxide detoxification by brain cells.
J. Neurosci. Res. 79, 157-165. 1, 1409-1416.

C. Ruedig, R. Dringen (2004)         
TNFa increases the activity of g-glutamyl transpeptidase in cultured rat astroglial cells.    
J. Neurosci. Res. 75, 536-543.

H.H. Hoepken, T. Korten, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen (2004)       
Iron accumulation, iron-mediated toxicity and altered levels of ferritin and transferrin receptor in cultured astrocytes during incubation with ferric ammonium citrate.      
J. Neurochem. 88, 1194-1202.

J.R. Liddell, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen (2004)      
Endogenous glutathione and catalase protect cultured rat astrocytes from the iron-mediated toxicity of hydrogen peroxide.       
Neurosci Lett. 364, 164-167.

J. Riemer, H.H. Hoepken, H. Czerwinska, S.R. Robinson, R. Dringen (2004)
Colorimetric ferrozine-based assay for the quantitation of iron in cultured cells.
Anal. Biochem. 331, 370-375.

A. Wick, W. Wick, J. Hirrlinger, E. Gerhardt, R. Dringen, J. Dichgans, M. Weller, J.B. Schulz (2004)         
Chemotherapy-induced cell death in primary cerebellar granule neurons but not in astrocytes: in vitro paradigm of differential neurotoxicity. 
J. Neurochem. 91, 1067-1074.

M. Hasselblatt, M. Bunte, R. Dringen, A. Tabernero, J.M. Medina, C. Giaume, A.L. Siren, H. Ehrenreich (2003)  
Effect of endothelin-1 on astrocytic protein content.         
Glia 42, 390-397.

P.G. Pawlowski, R. Dringen (2003) 
Identification of N-(carboxymethyl)lysine-positive cells in astroglia-rich primary cultures.      
J. Neural Transm. 110, 1077-1090.

T. Minich, S. Yokota, R. Dringen (2003)     
Cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases are expressed in cultured rat neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglial cells.        
J. Neurochem. 86, 605-614.

R. Dringen, J. Hirrlinger (2003)       
Glutathione pathways in brain.        
Biol. Chem. 384, 505-516.

Mössner R., Dringen R., Persico A.M., Janetzky B., Okladnova O., Albert D., Götz M., Benninghoff J., Schmitt A., Gerlach M., Riederer P., Lesch K.P. (2002)          
Increased hippocampal DNA oxidation in serotonin transporter derficient mice.         
J. Neural Transm. 109, 557-565.

J. Hirrlinger, J.B. Schulz, R. Dringen (2002)          
Glutathione release from cultured brain cells: multidrug resistance protein1 (Mrp1) mediates the release of GSH from rat astroglial cells.
J. Neurosci. Res. 69, 318-326.

R. Dringen, J.M. Gutterer (2002)    
Glutathione reductase from bovine brain.   
Meth. Enzymol. 348, 281-288.

J. Hirrlinger, J.B. Schulz, R. Dringen (2002)          
Effects of dopamine on the glutathione metabolism of cultured astroglial cells: implications for Parkinson´s disease.        
J. Neurochem. 82, 458-467.

J. Hirrlinger, A. Resch, J.M. Gutterer, R. Dringen (2002)  
Oligodendroglial cells in culture effectively dispose of exogenous hydrogen peroxide: comparison with cultured neurons, astroglial and microglial cells.         
J. Neurochem. 82, 635-644.

J. Hirrlinger, J. König, R. Dringen (2002)    
Expression of mRNAs of multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) in rat astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and neurons.         
J. Neurochem. 82, 716-719.

T. Sokolova, J.M. Gutterer, J. Hirrlinger, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (2001)
Catalase in astroglia-rich primary cultures from rat brain: immunocytochemical localization and inactivation during the disposal of hydrogen peroxide.   
Neurosci. Lett. 297, 129-132.

J. Hirrlinger, J. König, D. Keppler, J. Lindenau, J.B. Schulz, R. Dringen (2001)
The multidrug resistance protein MRP1 mediates release of glutathione disulfide from astrocytes during oxidative stress.   
J. Neurochem. 76, 627-636.

F. Kirchhoff, R. Dringen, C. Giaume (2001)
Pathways of neuron-astrocyte interactions and their possible role in neuroprotection.       
Eur. Arch. Psychiat. Clin. Neurosci. 251, 159-169.

W. Deuther-Conrad, C. Loske, R. Schinzel, R. Dringen, P. Riederer, G. Münch (2001)      
Advanced glycation endproducts change glutathione redox status in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by a hydrogen peroxide dependent mechanism.  
Neurosci. Lett. 312, 29-32.

R. Dringen, J.M. Gutterer, C. Gros, J. Hirrlinger (2001)    
The ectoenzyme aminopeptidase N mediates the utilization of the glutathione precursor CysGly by neurons.  
J. Neurosci. Res. 66, 1003-1008.

B. Rahman, L. Kussmaul. B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (2000)       
Glycogen is mobilized during the disposal of peroxides by cultured astroglial cells from rat brain.Neurosci. Lett. 290, 169-172.

R.. Dringen (2000)    
Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain.  
Prog. Neurobiol. 62, 649-671.

R. Dringen, J.M. Gutterer, J. Hirrlinger (2000)       
Glutathione metabolism in brain: metabolic interaction between astrocytes and neurons in the defense against reactive oxygen species.
Eur. J. Biochem. (now FEBS J) 267, 4912-4916.

J. Hirrlinger, J.M. Gutterer, L. Kussmaul, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (2000)
Microglial cells in culture express a prominent glutathione system for the defense against reactive oxygen species.
Dev. Neurosci. 22, 384-392.

L. Hertz, R. Dringen, A. Schousboe, S.R. Robinson (1999)         
Astrocytes: glutamate producers for neurons.       
J. Neurosci. Res. 57, 417-428.

R. Dringen, B. Pfeiffer, B. Hamprecht (1999)        
Synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione in neurons: astrocytes provide the dipeptide CysGly as precursor for neuronal glutathione         
J. Neurosci. 19, 562-569.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1999)    
N-Acetylcysteine, but not methionine or 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate, serves as cysteine donor for the synthesis of glutathione in cultured neurons derived from embryonal rat brain.      
Neurosci. Lett. 259, 79-82.

R. Dringen, L. Kussmaul, J.M. Gutterer, J. Hirrlinger, B. Hamprecht (1999)
The glutathione system of peroxide detoxification is less efficient in neurons than in astroglial cells.       
J. Neurochem. 72, 2523-2530.

J. Hirrlinger, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1999)      
Application and modulation of a permanent hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress to cultured astroglial cells. 
Brain Res. Protoc. 4, 223-229.

M. Mehl, H.J. Bidmon, H. Hilbig, K. Zilles, R. Dringen, V. Ullrich (1999)          
Prostacyclin synthase is localized in rat, bovine and human neuronal brain cells.     
Neurosci. Lett. 271, 187-190.

L. Kussmaul, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1999)
The detoxification of cumene hydroperoxide by the glutathione system of cultured astroglial cells hinges on hexose availability for the regeneration of NADPH.      
J. Neurochem. 73, 1246-1253.

J.M. Gutterer, R. Dringen, J. Hirrlinger, B. Hamprecht (1999)      
Purification of glutathione reductase from bovine brain, generation of an antiserum and localization of the enzyme in neural cells.        
J. Neurochem. 73, 1422-1430.

R. Vogel, H. Wiesinger, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1999)
The reduction of oxidized glutathione in rat forebrain mitochondria identifies metabolic pathways providing the NADPH required.     
Neurosci. Lett. 275, 97-100.

S.R. Robinson, A. Schousboe, R. Dringen, P. Magistretti, J. Coles, L. Hertz (1998)  
Metabolic trafficking between neurons and glia.    
In Glial Cells: Their Role in Behaviour (P. Laming, E. Sykova, A. Reichenbach, G.J. Hatton, H. Bauer, Eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 83-106.

O. Kranich, R. Dringen, M. Sandberg, B. Hamprecht (1998)       
Utilization of cystine and cysteine precursors for the synthesis of glutathione in astroglial cells: preference for cystine.
Glia 22, 11-18.

R. Dringen, S. Verleysdonk, B. Hamprecht, W. Willker, D. Leibfritz, A. Brand (1998) 
Metabolism of glycine in primary astroglial cells: synthesis of creatine, serine, and glutathione.       
J. Neurochem. 70, 835-840.

R. Dringen, L. Kussmaul, B. Hamprecht (1998)     
Rapid clearance of tertiary butyl hydroperoxide by cultured astroglial cells via oxidation of glutathione.     
Glia 23, 139-145.

R. Dringen, L. Kussmaul, B. Hamprecht (1998)     
Detoxification of exogenous hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides by cultured astroglial cells assessed by a microtiter plate assay.   
Brain Res. Protoc. 2, 223-228.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht, S. Bröer (1998)
The peptide transporter PepT2 mediates the uptake of the glutathione precursor CysGly in astroglia-rich primary cultures.          
J. Neurochem. 71, 388-393.

A. Brand, D. Leibfritz, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1998)   
Metabolism of cysteine in astroglial cells: synthesis of hypotaurine and taurine.         
J. Neurochem. 71, 827-832.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1998)    
Glutathione restoration as indicator for cellular metabolism of astroglial cells.  
Dev. Neurosci. 20, 401-407.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht, B. Druckarch (1998)    
Anethole dithiolethione, a putative neuroprotectant, increases intracellular and extracellular glutathione levels during starvation of cultured astroglial cells.       
Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 358, 616-622.

H. Wiesinger, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1997)    
Metabolic pathways for glucose in astrocytes.       
Glia 21, 22-34.

R. Dringen, O. Kranich, B. Hamprecht (1997)       
The γ-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitor acivicin preserves glutathione released by astroglial cells in culture.         
Neurochem. Res. 22, 727-733.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1997)    
Involvement of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the disposal of exogenous hydrogen peroxide by cultured astroglial cells.           
Brain Res. 759, 67-75.

R. Dringen, O. Kranich, P.A. Löschmann, B. Hamprecht (1997)  
Use of dipeptides for the synthesis of glutathione by astroglia-rich primary cultures.      
J. Neurochem. 69, 868-874.

S.R. Robinson, A. Schousboe, R. Dringen, P. Magistretti, J. Coles, L. Hertz (1998) Metabolic trafficking between neurons and glia.      
In Glial Cells: Their Role in Behaviour (P. Laming, E. Sykova, A. Reichenbach, G.J. Hatton, H. Bauer, Eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 83-106.

O. Elekes, K. Venema, F. Postema, R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht, J. Korf (1996)
Evidence that stress activates glial lactate formation in vivo assessed with rat hippocampus lactography.
Neurosci. Lett. 208, 69-72.

O. Elekes, K. Venema, F. Postema, R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht, J. Korf (1996)
Possible glial contribution of rat hippocampus lactate as assessed with microdialysis and stress.
Acta Neurochir. 67, Suppl., 1-5.

K. Bergbauer, R. Dringen, S. Verleysdonk, R. Gebhardt, B. Hamprecht, H. Wiesinger (1996)
Studies on fructose metabolism in cultured astroglial cells and control hepatocytes: lack of fructokinase activity and immunoreactivity in astrocytes.    
Dev. Neurosci. 18, 371-379.

U. Wüllner, P.A. Löschmann, J.B. Schulz, A. Schmid, R. Dringen, F. Eblen, L. Turski, T. Klockgether (1996)      
Glutathione depletion potentiates MPTP and MPP+ toxicity in nigral dopaminergic neurons.
Neuroreport 7, 921-923.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1996)    
Glutathione content as an indicator for the presence of metabolic pathways of amino acids in astroglial cultures.      
J. Neurochem. 67, 1375-1382.

O. Kranich, B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1996)       
Different preferences in the utilization of amino acids for the synthesis of glutathione in cultured astroglial and neuronal cells from rat brain.           
Neurosci. Lett. 219, 211-214.

P.G. Farlie, R. Dringen, S.M. Rees, G. Kannourakis, O. Bernard (1995)
Transgenic mice expressing Bcl-2 in neurons have increased number of neurons which are resistant to experimentally induced cell death.          
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 4397-4401.

B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1995)    
Energy metabolism.  
In Neuroglia (H. Kettenmann, B.R. Ransom, Eds) Oxford University Press, New York, 473-487.

R. Dringen, H. Peters, H. Wiesinger, B. Hamprecht (1995)         
Lactate transport in cultured glial cells.      
Dev. Neurosci. 17, 63-69.

B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen (1994)    
On the role of glycogen and pyruvate uptake in astroglial-neuronal interaction.    
In Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia (J. Krieglstein, H. Oberpichler-Schwenk, Eds) Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, Germany, 191-202.

R. Dringen, K. Bergbauer, H. Wiesinger, B. Hamprecht (1994)    
Utilization of mannose by astroglial cells.   
Neurochem. Res. 19, 23-30.

K. Kotitschke, K.D. Schnackerz, R. Dringen, U. Bogdan, U. Haase, M. von Kienlin (1994)
Investigation of the 1H-NMR visibility of lactate in different rat and human brain cells.
NMR Biomed. 7, 349-355.

O. Bernard, S. Ganiatsas, G. Kannourakis, R. Dringen (1994)    
Kiz-1, a protein with LIM zinc finger and kinase domains is expressed mainly in neurons.
Cell Growth & Diff. (now Mol. Cancer Res.) 5, 1159-117.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1993)    
Inhibition by 2-deoxyglucose and 1,5-gluconolactone of glycogen mobilization in astroglia-rich primary cultures.       
J. Neurochem. 60, 1498-1504.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1993)    
Differences in glycogen metabolism in astroglia-rich primary cultures and sorbitol-selected astroglia cultures derived from mouse brain.      
Glia 8, 143-149.

R. Dringen, D. Schmoll, M. Cesar, B. Hamprecht (1993)
Incorporation of radioactivity derived from [14C]lactate in the culture medium into the glycogen of mouse astroglial cells: evidence for gluconeogenesis in brain cells.       
Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyer 374, 343-347.

B. Hamprecht, R. Dringen, B. Pfeiffer, G. Kurz (1993)
The possible roles of astrocytes in energy metabolism of the brain.          
In Biology and Pathology of Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions (S. Federoff, B.H.J. Juurlink, R. Doucette, Eds) Plenum Press, New York, 83-91.

R. Dringen, R. Gebhardt, B. Hamprecht (1993)     
Glycogen in astrocytes: possible function as lactate supply for neighboring cells.     
Brain Res. 623, 208-214.

R. Dringen, H. Wiesinger, B. Hamprecht (1993)    
Uptake of L-lactate in cultured brain neurons        
Neurosci. Lett. 163, 5-7.

R. Dringen, B. Hamprecht (1992)    
Glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I regulate the glycogen content of astroglia-rich primary cultures.   
J. Neurochem. 58, 511-517.

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