In everyday life, humans constantly are making decisions alone or together with others. They are aware of themselves. We tend to believe that we are coming to conscious and informed decisions. In contrast, simple life forms, e.g. hydra or slime molds, do not have a brain, or do not even possess a neuronal network. Nevertheless, they exhibit complex behavior in order to make an optimal decision securing their survival. More generally, formulating “decision making” as searching for an optimal solution encompasses processes in non-living systems as they occur, e.g., in logistics, telecommunications, or robotics.