Christopher Gies, Alexander Steinhoff
Laser Photonics Rev. 15, 2000482 (2021)
2D semiconductors and their heterostructures have developed into a flourishing research field. A more or less simultaneous start of experimental and theoretical developments has led to continuous advancements in both branches of physics that continue to benefit from one another in an exemplary manner. This article gives an overview of the theoretical advancements that have resulted from a decade of research on 2D van der Waals materials and reviews current theoretical methods, focussing on exciton-plasma balance, excited-state optics, and laser physics.