A digital twin digitally represents a real-world object and is increasingly used in production technology and engineering. Digital twins collect data and models, i.e., the entire digital knowledge that is created over the life of a product or system from the idea to completion. They thus integrate model-based approaches on which classical simulation and optimization paradigms as well as data analytic approaches are built. Digital twins are thought leaders for innovation and performance, as they open up new business opportunities by combining technical knowledge, available data and novel services such as simulation-based monitoring and diagnostics or predictive maintenance. On May 7 and 8, 2019, the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities will host the Challenge Workshop "Digital Twins: Industrial and Mathematical Challenges." This event will bring together experts from different industries and academia to present and discuss mathematical challenges related to Digital Twins. The goal of the workshop is to drive innovation by establishing new research collaborations that address real-world problems from a variety of industrial applications. The Challenge Workshop has already attracted speakers Prof. Dr. Christof Büskens, ZeTeM University Bremen; Carsten Dietze-Selent, SAP SE; Dr. Dirk Hartmann, Siemens AG; Hanno Schülldorf, Deutsche Bahn AG; Dr. Hergen Schultze, BASF SE; Prof. Dr. Hans Georg Bock, Heidelberg University; Prof. Dr. Wil Schilders, EU-MATHS-IN and Prof. Dr. Thomas Schuster, Saarland University.