Salt-induced self-assembly of nanofibrous fibrinogen scaffolds
Fibrous biopolymer scaffolds for tissue engineering
In vitro fiber assembly
Extrusion of proteins
Template-assisted extrusion of proteins through nanoporous ceramics (AAO) yields different hierarchical arrangements of protein nanofibers (Raoufi et al., Integr Biol 8, 2016).
Wet-spinning of chitosan
Wet-spinning of chitosan with embedded magnetic nanoparticles yields helical microfibers for magnetic actuation (Brüggemann, et al., BJNANO 11, 2020).
FRET analysis of extruded fibronectin fibers reveals lasting changes in the protein conformation (Raoufi et al., Nano Lett 15, 2015).
Fibrillogenesis of fibrinogen
Salt-induced self-assembly induces fibrillogenesis of fibrinogen under physiological buffer conditions. (A) SEM image of dried fibrinogen nanofibers shows a highly porous scaffold nanoarchitecture (Stapelfeldt et al., Biofabrication 11, 2019), (B) AFM image of fibrinogen nanofibers in aqueous environment (Stapelfeldt et al., Nano Lett 19, 2019).
Fibroblasts on collagen nanofibers
Fluorescence microscopy image of fibroblasts on collagen scaffolds, scale bar: 20 µm (Suter et al., Biofabrication 13, 2020)
Fibroblast on collagen scaffolds
Scanning electron microscopy image of a fibroblast on collagen with fibrous and smooth topography (Suter et al., Biofabrication 13, 2020)
Detachment of nanofibrous fibrinogen scaffolds
Controlled detachment of nanofibrous fibrinogen scaffolds can be achieved by a surface modification of the underlying substrate and a crosslinking step (Stapelfeldt et al., Biofabrication 11, 2019).
Macroscopic fibronogen scaffolds
Macroscopic scaffolds of nanofibrous fibrinogen can be prepared by salt-induced self-assembly with dimensions up to 10 cm in length.
Nanoporous protein-ceramic composites
Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanopores are prepared by an electrochemical etching process, which results in the self-assembly of vertical nanopores with well-controllable geometries.