Developed Questionnaire Instruments

Teamwork-Context-Analysis Inventory (TAKAI)


Vera Hagemann and Anette Kluge

Fields of Application

TAKAI (Teamwork-Context-Analysis Inventory) is an instrument to investigate the working context of teams in High Reliability Organisations, but also of teams which do not work in such organisations. The aim of the inventory is to determine the strains affecting the team or respectively the teamwork due to the characteristics of the work context. As experts in their work, the team members provide written information about their work context. The inventory explicitly asks for the characteristics of the working context by asking the team members to rate descriptive statements. The performance of the individuals in the work context is not evaluated. On the basis of the data collected, crew-resource-management-based interventions can then be tailored and reliably but efficiently transferred from aviation to other teams.

This instrument supports the need for CRM-based interventions of an increasing number of work contexts such as the police or fire brigade. A reliable transfer of the contents is possible if the TAKAI is used before the transmission of such interventions. Participants will then learn in a well-founded way and can change their behaviour in the long term.

Goals of the TAKAI

  • Analysis of the working context / working conditions of an organisation or branch in the field of HROs
  • Comparison of different HROs, comparison according to dimensions and identification of differences
  • Development of profiles for each HRO
  • Analysis of the specific training needs in relation to C/TRM in a particular branch
  • Derivation of consequences from the profiles for an adaptation of CRM training for HROs in the non-aviation field


There are four main categories for investigating the working environment: 1) Complexity, 2) Contextual Criteria, 3) Adaptive Behaviour, and 4) Shared Mental Model.
These four categories consist of 14 item groups (scales) and 12 individual items as indicators.

The category Complexity includes:

  • Intransparency
  • Connectivity: Departments
  • Connectivity: Flow of Information
  • Polytelie
  • Self-dynamics
  • Delayed Feedback

The category Context Criteria includes:

  • Speed of team movement
  • Group size
  • Speed of changes in the system
  • Personal threat
  • Hierarchy (Followership, Leadership)
  • Environmental factors
  • Impairment of communication
  • Familiarity with the working environment

The category Adaptive Behaviour includes:

  • Collection of Information
  • Task prioritisation
  • Distribution of tasks

The category Shared Mental Models includes:

  • Team
  • Task


The strains or respectively the characteristics of the work context are surveyed on the basis of 62 questions, which cover four central categories with a total of 14 item groups and 12 individual items as indicators. The team members of the occupational group of interest are surveyed. The inventory requires about 20 minutes to complete. The survey can be conducted online or in paper-pencil format.
If you are interested in the instrument, please contact Prof. Dr. Vera Hagemann.


Hagemann, V. (2011). Trainingsentwicklung für High Responsibility Teams - Eine systematische Analyse von High Responsibility Team-Arbeitskontexten und Ableitung der High Responsibility Team-spezifischen kritischen Situationen sowie der Trainingsziele mit anschließender Trainingsevaluation. Lengerich: Pabst Verlag.

Hagemann, V., Kluge, A. & Ritzmann, S. (2011). High Responsibility Teams – Eine systematische Analyse von Teamarbeitskontexten für einen effektiven Kompetenzerwerb, Psychologie des Alltagshandelns, 4(1), 22-42.


Here you can find detailed information about the instrument and a download:

Open Test Archive - TAKAI

German-Language Questionnaire to Measure Collective Orientation (CO)


Vera Hagemann

Fields of Application

The instrument for measuring Collective Orientation (CO) records an individual's attitude towards working in a team. It measures the willingness to work in a team in a collective way. A team member with a high collective orientation works effectively with others on a factual and relational level. In addition, a team member with a high score in CO considers the input of other members, improves the team result and enjoys team membership. The Collective Orientation of persons/team members is positively related to the coordination performance of the respective team and the overall team performance in interdependent work. The inventory can be used for a status measurement in any team context. In addition, it can be used to measure changes in a team, e.g. to visualise changes in collective orientation due to interventions in a team.


In the CO-questionnaire the two dimensions Affiliation (10 Items) and Dominance (6 Items) are used to assess a person’s tendency to prefer working with others rather than working alone (high affiliation) and to value cooperation more than power and control (low dominance).


The instrument economically covers two relevant dimensions of collective orientation. 16 items are answered on a 5-point Likert-scale. Processing the items takes about 5 minutes.
If you are interested in the instrument, please contact Prof. Dr. Vera Hagemann.


Hagemann, V. (2017). Development of a German-Language Questionnaire to Measure Collective Orientation as an Individual Attitude, Swiss Journal of Psychology, 76(3), 91-105. Doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000198.


Here you can find detailed information about the instrument and a download:

Open Test Archive - CO

Training Evaluation Inventory (TEI)


Sandrina Ritzmann, Vera Hagemann and Annette Kluge

Fields of Application

The Training Evaluation Inventory (TEI) is an instrument to evaluate interventions such as trainings or workshops. The questionnaire can be integrated into the formative, i.e. ongoing training evaluation process, but can also be used to evaluate a training finally and summatively. Due to its theoretical and empirical foundation and its wide acceptance among the relevant stakeholders in organisations (trainers, trainees, decision makers in training issues), the TEI is suitable for use in research projects as well as for the evaluation of training interventions in an organisational context. The TEI also enables a comparison of different training modules.


The ten scales of the TEI cover both training-relevant outcome dimensions and aspects of the training design.
Kirkpatrick's (1998) influential hierarchical evaluation model with the four levels "reactions", "learning", "behaviour" and "results" formed the basis for the development of the scales in the outcome dimensions. The first two levels are recorded in a differentiated manner using five scales.

The outcome dimensions include:

  • Reaction: Subjective enjoyment
  • Reaction: Perceived usefulness
  • Reaction: Perceived difficulty
  • Learning: Subjective knowledge gain
  • Learning: attitude towards training

The training design focuses on the aspects of a training course that support the participants in learning and in transferring the acquired knowledge into the daily work routine. The dimensions of the training design are based on Merrill's principles of instructional learning (2002).

The five scales of the TEI cover the following areas:

  • Problem-based learning
  • Activation (of previous knowledge)
  • Demonstration
  • Application
  • Integration


The TEI economically covers five relevant outcome variables and five aspects of training design from the participants' perspective. Using a 5-level Likert scale, the 45 items are completed by the participants of the training and can provide indications of the success of an intervention. Processing the inventory takes about 6-8 minutes.
If you are interested in the instrument, please contact Prof. Dr. Annette Kluge or Prof. Dr. Vera Hagemann.


Ritzmann, S., Hagemann, V. & Kluge, A. (2014). The training evaluation inventory (TEI) - Evaluation of training design and measurement of training outcomes for predicting training success, Vocations and Learning, 7(1), 41-73. Online First 2013: DOI: 10.1007/s12186-013-9106-4


Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1998). Evaluating training programs: The four levels (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59.


Here you can find detailed information about the instrument and a download:

Open Test Archive - TEI