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Report on climate justice in Germany published for the first time

Prof. Dr. Gabriele Bolte investigates health equity in climate change impacts

Prof. Dr. Gabriele Bolte and Dr. Lisa Dandolo from the Department of Social Epidemiology of the Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research have examined climate justice in Germany from a public health perspective. The report on climate change and health, which was written jointly with the Centre for Planetary Health Policy of the German Alliance on Climate Change and Health and the University of Bielefeld and has now been published, focuses on health equity in the face of climate change impacts.

The health consequences of climate change are considered by health scientists to be one of the greatest global challenges for public health: Severe heat and extreme weather events, air pollution and an increase in allergies - the list of negative effects is long. The significance of climate change for human health is also increasing in Germany.

Poorer people suffer more from climate change

Social inequalities play a major role globally, both in terms of the extent of exposure to climate change impacts and in terms of sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Social inequalities in the material and social environment can influence biological sensitivity to the health effects of climate change impacts. For example, people living in poverty are exposed to chronic stress, which increases their sensitivity to climate change impacts. In addition, they do not have the material and social resources to adapt to changing climate conditions and the associated social and economic impacts.

A team led by Professor Gabriele Bolte from the Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research at the University of Bremen and the WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Inequalities has compiled research findings from Germany on climate justice from a public health perspective for the first time. Her conclusion:

Climate issues must not be viewed in isolation from social justice

"In Germany, the topic of climate justice is still not addressed enough," says Professor Gabriele Bolte. "By this I mean the avoidable, unjust social inequalities that occur in the health consequences of climate change and how these social inequalities in the effects on health can be avoided through appropriate targeted planning and implementation of climate protection and adaptation measures. Environmental and climate issues cannot be seen in isolation from issues of social justice."

The report presents a model that can serve as a basis for the systematic analysis of the relationship between climate change impacts, social dimensions, adaptive capacities, biological sensitivity and health equity. With reference to the international debate and evidence on climate justice, options for action and research needs for Germany are identified.

"Many points can be addressed to increase climate justice: For example, when greening cities to improve the urban climate as part of municipal climate adaptation strategies, care can be taken to ensure that all population groups benefit. Heat action plans as a central instrument of municipalities to protect human health from heat can be designed from the outset to reduce social differences in heat stress and health consequences," explains Professor Gabriele Bolte.

The report was published in the Journal of Health Monitoring as part of a series of 14 articles on climate change and health in Germany. As part of the KlimGesundAkt project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health, the Robert Koch Institute is coordinating an interdisciplinary network of experts to compile a comprehensive synthesis of current evidence on climate change and health in Germany. The series of articles was published in the course of 2023 and represents an update and expansion of the content of the Assessment Report on Climate Change and Health from 2010.

Further information:

The report is available free of charge on the website of the Robert Koch Institute:

Prof. Dr. Gabriele Bolte
Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research (IPP)
Department of Social Epidemiology
WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Ine-qualities
University of Bremen


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