Dr. Martin C. Lukas
- Geographies of development
- Environmental governance
- Natural resources use, access, control and management
- Environmental conflicts
- Land use and land cover change
- Environmental history
- Political ecology
- Regional focus (to date): South and Southeast Asia
My interdisciplinary research links environmental and societal changes. It analyses both material and discursive dimensions of environmental issues and changes and links them to resources uses, resources access and control, and related conflicts and politics in the context of social and political-economic developments. I thereby put emphasis on historical trajectories and work across scales.
I thus combine and develop research approaches and methods rooted in different disciplines. These range from remote sensing, mapping, historical cartographic reconstructions of environmental change, and the analysis of a broad range of spatial data in Geographical Information Systems to a variety of social-scientific research methods, such as interviews, focus groups, and surveys. I also incorporate transdisciplinary approaches, for example, in interviews and through science-policy workshops.
Lukas, M.C. & Peluso, N.L. (2019). Transforming the classic political forest: Contentious territories in Java. Antipode, published online, https://doi.org/10.1111/anti.12563.
Lukas, M.C. & Flitner, M. (2019). Scalar fixes of environmental management in Java, Indonesia. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, published online, https://doi.org/10.1177/2514848619844769.
Dsikowitzky, L., Damar, A., Ferse, S.C.A., Irianto, H.E., Jennerjahn, T.C., Lukas, M.C., Nordhaus, I. Pohlmann, T., Schwarzbauer, J., Sugama, K. and Sumiono, B.(2019): Java Island. In: Sheppard, C.: World Seas: An environmental evaluation, Volume II: The Indian Ocean to the Pacific, 2nd edition, Academic Press, Chapter 21, 459-490. doi.org/10.1016/C2015-0-04332-5
Lukas, M.C. (2018). Narrow views: Struggles to protect a shrinking coastal lagoon in Java. In: Hempel, G., Hempel, I., Hornidge, A.-K. (eds.): Scientific partnership for a better future. Bremen’s research along tropical coasts. Falkenberg, 115-118.
Heyde, J., Lukas, M.C., Flitner, M. (2017). Pembayaran Jasa Lingkungan: Instrumen baru untuk mengatasi masalah lingkungan berkepanjangan di daerah aliran sungai dan pesisir di Indonesia? Naskah Kebijakan. artec-Paper 214, Sustainability Research Center (artec), University of Bremen.
Heyde, J., Lukas, M.C., Flitner, M. (2017). Payments for Environmental Services: A new instrument to address long-standing problems? Policy Paper. artec-Paper 213, Sustainability Research Center (artec), University of Bremen.
Lukas, M. C. (2017). Konservasi daerah aliran sungai di Pulau Jawa, Indonesia: Terjebak dalam konflik sumberdaya hutan. artec-Paper 212, Sustainability Research Center (artec), University of Bremen
Lukas, M.C. (2017). Verengter Blick: Über Versuche, eine Lagune auf Java vor der Verlandung zu bewahren. In: Hempel, G., Hempel, I., Hornidge, A.-K. (eds.): Klüger nutzen – besser schützen. Bremer Forschung an tropischen Küsten. Falkenberg, 119-122.
Lawer, E.T., Lukas, M.C., Jørgensen, S.H. (2017). The neglected role of local institutions in the ‘resource curse’ debate. Limestone mining in the Krobo region of Ghana. Resources Policy, 54, 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2017.08.005
Lukas, M.C. (2017). Widening the scope: Linking coastal sedimentation with watershed dynamics in Java, Indonesia. Regional Environmental Change, 17(3), 901-914. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-016-1058-4
Lukas, M.C. (2017). Memperluas jangkauan: Menghubungkan sedimentasi pesisir dengan dinamika daerah aliran sungai di Jawa, Indonesia, Regional Environmental Change, 17(3), Supplementary Material 1.
Lukas, M. C. (2015): Reconstructing contested landscapes. Dynamics, drivers and political framings of land use and land cover change, watershed transformations and coastal sedimentation in Java, Indonesia. Doctoral thesis, University of Bremen, Germany. https://elib.suub.uni-bremen.de/edocs/00106383-1.pdf
Lukas, M.C. (2015). Neglected treasures. Linking Historical Cartography with Environmental Changes in Java, Indonesia. Cartographica 50(3), 141-162. https://doi.org/10.3138/cart.50.3.2891
Lukas, M.C. (2014). Cartographic Reconstruction of Historical Environmental Change. Cartographic Perspectives 78, 5-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14714/CP78.1218
Karstens, S. & Lukas, M.C. (2014). Contested aquaculture development in the protected mangrove forests of the Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Geoöko, 35, 78 – 121. Full text.
Lukas, M.C. (2014). Eroding battlefields: Land degradation in Java reconsidered. Geoforum, 56, 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.06.010
Lukas, M. C. (2013). Political transformation and watershed governance in Java: Actors and interests. In R. Muradian & L. M. Rival (Eds.), Governing the provision of ecosystem services (pp. 111-132). Dordrecht, New York: Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-5176-7_6
Lukas, M. C., Julia, Radjawali, I., Flitner, M., & Pye, O. (2012). The conflict-laden multi-functionality of the Kapuas River in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 5(2), 359-368. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-334117
Heyde, J., Lukas, M. C., & Flitner, M. (2012). Payments for Environmental Services in Indonesia: A Review of Watershed-Related Schemes. artec-Paper 186, artec | Research Center for Sustainability Studies, University of Bremen.
Lukas, M. C., Heyde, J., & Flitner, M. (2012). Umweltmythen und umkämpfte Ressourcen. Die Politische Ökologie einer verschwindenden Lagune auf Java. Impulse aus der Forschung, Das Autorenmagazin der Universität Bremen, 2/2012, 14–17.
Schwerdtner Máñez Costa, K., Máñez Costa, M., & Lukas, M. C. (2009). Volcanic eruptions and the forgotten pearls. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52(3-4), 229-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.12.006
Lukas, M. & Cahn, M. (2008). Organic agriculture and rural livelihoods in Karnataka, India. Cultivating the future based on Science. Proceedings of the second scientific conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR), Volume 2, 476-479.
Lukas, M. (2007). The effects of organic agriculture on the livelihoods of farmers in Gujarat, India. Diplomarbeit, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Gießen, Germany.
Lukas, M., & Steinhilper, D. (2005). Living conditions in the Gunung Sewu karst region (Java, Indonesia). The example of the community of Dadapayu. Werkstattpapiere, Institut für Geographie der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen (Vol. 13). Wettenberg: Herrmann J&J-Verlag.
Organised conference sessions and workshops
Lukas, M.C.: Cartographic reconstruction of environmental histories. Organiser and chair of conference session, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Boston, 5-9 April 2017.
Lukas, M.C. (together with Jill Heyde): „Tata Kelola Lingkungan di Laguna dan Daerah Aliran Sungai Segara Anakan (Environmental governance in the Segara Anakan lagoon and its catchment area)”, Science-Policy Workshop, Cilacap, Java, Indonesia, 12 January 2016.
Lukas, M.C. (together with Olivier Graefe): „Politische Ökologie des Wassers: Konflikte um Wasser, Flüsse und Flusseinzugsgebiete“ (Political Ecology of Water: Conflicts over water, rivers and watersheds), Co-organiser and chair of conference session at Deutscher Kongress für Geographie (DKG), Berlin, 1-6 October 2015.
Lukas, M.C. From sea charts to satellite images, Cartographic reconstruction of historical environmental change. 17th International Conference of Historical Geographers, Warsaw, 16-20 July 2018.
Lukas, M.C. Beyond the trap of disciplinary research and political framings. Integrating approaches, methods and scales in human-environment research. XIII International Conference of the Society for Human Ecology, Lisbon, 7-10 July 2018.
Lukas, M.C. Forschungsfronten an den Schnittstellen verschiedener Disziplinen und Methoden. Flusseinzugsgebietsmanagement in Indonesien. 92. Dämmerschoppen, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) Bremen, 7 June 2018.
Lukas, M.C. Tenure contestation: An underexplored cause of land use and land cover change (LUCC). Land Systems Science Symposium, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Boston, 5-9 April 2017.
Lukas, M.C. Cartographic reconstruction of environmental histories (Introductory presentation). Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, Boston, 5-9 April 2017.
Lukas, M.C. The need to look upstream. The case of the shrinking Segara Anakan lagoon in Java, Indonesia. ECSA 56 Coastal systems in transition: From a 'natural' to an 'anthropogenically-modified' state Bremen, 4-7 September 2016
Lukas, M.C. Linking cartographic and environmental histories. RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, Royal Geographical Society (RGS) with the Institute of British Geographers, London, 30 August – 2 September 2016.
Lukas, M.C. & Karstens, S. Blue growth for whom? Aquaculture development in the Kapuas estuary, West-Kalimantan. RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, Royal Geographical Society (RGS) with the Institute of British Geographers, London, 30 August – 2 September 2016.
Lukas, M.C. Reconstructing contested landscapes: Linking historically rooted conflicts over land and forest resources with environmental degradation in Java, Indonesia. Indonesian Studies Colloquium, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, 7 April 2016.
Lukas, M.C. Transformation and persistence in Java’s political forests. Panel “The Political Forest: Governance, Expertise, and Resistance”, Association of American Geographers (AAG) Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 29 March – 2 April 2016.
Lukas, M. C. The need to look upstream. Watershed management in the catchment of the Segara Anakan lagoon. Final conference of the research programme SPICE (Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Marine Ecosystems), Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, 20-21 January 2016.
Lukas, M. C. Dynamics and drivers of lagoon sedimentation and watershed transformations. Science-policy workshop Tata Kelola Lingkungan di Laguna dan Daerah Aliran Sungai Segara Anakan, Cilacap, Java, Indonesia, 12 January 2016.
Lukas, M. C. Den Blick weiten: Flusseinzugsgebietsmanagement in Java, Indonesien. Tag der Hydrologie, Universität Bonn, 19-20 March 2015.
Lukas, M. C. Landnutzungswandel in Java, Indonesien - Umweltmythen und Konflikte. Vortragsreihe der Bremer Geographischen Gesellschaft, Bremen, 19 November 2014.
Lukas, M. C. Upland degradation reconsidered. Land use and land cover change, erosion and land tenure in the catchment area of the Segara Anakan lagoon, Java, Indonesia. Workshop “10th Anniversary of UNSOED - ZMT Collaboration in the Frame of SPICE”, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Indonesia, 27-28 November 2013.
Lukas, M. C. Landnutzungswandel in Java, Indonesien - Umweltmythen und Konflikte. GEO-Info Tag (Schulgeographentag), Verband Deutscher Schulgeographen e.V. (VDSG), Landesverband Bremen, Bremen, 20 January 2012.
Lukas, M. C. Challenging environmental myths: Struggles over watershed governance on Java, Indonesia. Jahrestagung Doktorandennetzwerk Indonesien (DokNet), Hamburg, 11-13 November 2011.
Lukas, M. C. Watershed conservation amid contested socio-political histories, political transformation and struggles over resource access and control on Java, Indonesia. ESF (European Science Foundation) Research Conference: Water governance: Meeting the Challenges of Global Change, Universitätszentrum Obergurgl, Austria, 5-10 June 2011.
Lukas, M. C. Beyond the divide between ‘local’ and ‘scientific’ knowledge. The role of hybrid knowledge and networks for more inclusive and sustainable decision making. 11th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) “Advancing Sustainability in a time of Crisis”, Oldenburg and Bremen, 22-25 August 2010.
Lukas, M. C. ‘Himalayan degradation’ and the disappearing Segara Anakan Lagoon. Land use change and watershed management on Java, Indonesia. 11th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) “Advancing Sustainability in a time of Crisis”, Oldenburg and Bremen, 22-25 August 2010.
Lukas, M. C. Spatial pasts challenging present management. The Citanduy watershed on Java between colonial forestry and contemporary management. "Space, Movement and Place in Southeast Asia", Universities of California in Berkeley & Los Angeles Joint Conference on Southeast Asian Studies, Berkeley, California, 2 April 2010.
Lukas, M. C. & Schwerdtner Máñez, K. Understanding the past to manage the future: Historical environmental and social changes in the Segara Anakan Lagoon. International Ocean, Science and Policy Symposium at the World Ocean Conference 2009, Manado, Indonesia, 12-14 May 2009.
Lukas, M. C. Volcanic eruptions and the disappearance of the Segara Anakan Lagoon in south Java, Indonesia. International Ocean, Science and Policy Symposium at the World Ocean Conference 2009, Manado, Indonesia, 14 May 2009.
1-2/2016: Java and Kalimantan, Indonesia, field research, policy workshops, teaching
11/2013-2/2014: Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia, field research
1-4/2013: Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java, Indonesia, field research
2-3/2012: Kalimantan, Indonesia, field research, building of collaborations
12/2010-5/2011: Java, Indonesia, field research, teaching, mentoring
10/2009-5/2010: Java, Indonesia, field research, teaching, mentoring
3-8/2009: Java, Indonesia, field research, building collaborations, teaching, mentoring
2-6/2008: Java, Indonesia, field research, building collaborations
1-5/2007: Gujarat, India, field research
2-5/2006: Karnataka, India, field research
09/2019 - 12/2019
Honorary research fellow, School of Geography, University of Melbourne, Australia
Postdoctoral researcher at the Sustainability Research Center, University of Bremen, Germany
11/2015 - 12/2018
Postdoc, GLOMAR – Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences, MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, German Excellence Initiative - Cluster 309.
10/2011 - 10/2015
Researcher, University of Bremen, Sustainability Research Center (artec)
Connecting the urban and the rural: A political ecology of the Kapuas River (Kalimantan, Indonesia), funded by DFG (German Research Foundation); role: researcher.
Upstream-Downstream Linkages and New Instruments in Coastal and Watershed governance in Java, Kalimantan, and Sumatra, a sub-project of the research programme SPICE III (Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Marine Ecosystems), funded by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); role: designed and coordinated research project.
12/2007 - 09/2011
Researcher, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) Bremen
Research project: Land use change, coastal sedimentation, and watershed management in Java, Indonesia, in the frame of the research programme SPICE II (Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems), Cluster 6 (Governance and Management of Coastal Social-Ecological Systems), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF); role: researcher.
Studies and education
PhD (with distinction, summa cum laude), University of Bremen; Thesis: “Reconstructing contested landscapes. Dynamics, drivers and political framings of land use and land cover change, watershed transformations and coastal sedimentation in Java, Indonesia”, available at: elib.suub.uni-bremen.de/edocs/00106383-1.pdf
2002 - 2007
Diplom (equivalent to M.A.) (with distinction) in Geography, Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Germany; Main fields of study: Development studies, Development sociology, International nutrition security, Agricultural geography, Organic agriculture, Regional focus: Asia, particularly Indonesia and India; Thesis: “The effects of organic agriculture on the livelihoods of farmers in Gujarat, India”;
2005 - 2007
Master in Applied Science (with distinction), International Rural Development, Lincoln University, New Zealand; Thesis: “Organic agriculture and rural livelihoods in Karnataka, India”; involved a qualitative survey of farmers’ households, NGOs and marketing organisations.
2000 - 2002
Undergraduate studies in Geography, Forest Botany and Remote Sensing at the Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Germany
A-Level (overall grade: 1.2), Technisches Gymnasium, BSZ Elektrotechnik Dresden, Germany
2017: PhD thesis awarded with Campuspreis „Forschen für Nachhaltige Zukunft“ (Award honouring outstanding „Research for a Sustainable Future“), Kellner & Stoll-Stiftung für Klima und Umwelt.
Since 2004: Scholar of the Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes, the German Academic Scholarship Foundation that sponsors outstanding students in Germany.
Other work experiences and internships
Lincoln Envirotown Trust, New Zealand: Analysis and reporting of the results of a community study regarding the future development of Lincoln Township, Jul-Sep 2006.
Study and research project in Samoa: Evaluation of an international development project (fruit tree development), Apr-Sep 2005.
Study and research project in Java, Indonesia: Socioeconomic analysis of water users in Gunung Kidul, Java; baseline study linked to an international water development project, Aug-Sep 2003.
Internship, Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies and Institutions (SRISTI) in Ahmedabad, India: Analysis of the spatial distribution pattern of sustainability-related innovations generated by ‘grassroots’ people, Mar-Apr 2003.
Internship, SUNSEED Desert Technology in Almería, Spain: Analysis of concepts and methods for sustainable management and revegetation of dryland regions in the Global South, Aug-Sep 2002.
Internship, International Society for Ecology and Culture (ISEC) in Ladakh, India: Study of the social, ecological, and economic dimensions of rural development in the context of globalisation; held workshops and discussions, Aug-Sep 2001.
Student Research Assistant, Department of Geography, Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Germany: prepared and delivered seminars; organised a field trip; managed the department’s computer laboratory and map library, Mar 2003 – Aug 2004.
Student Research Assistant, Department of Geography, TU Dresden, Germany: research project on the causes of the entry of humic substances into surface waters; analysed quantitative data and created maps using ArcGIS, Sep 2001 – Sep 2002.
Civilian Service, State Environmental Protection Agency Radebeul, Germany: surveyed and mapped natural monuments, biotopes, erosion, and ecological river quality; analysed qualitative, quantitative and spatial data and produced reports regarding allocation of public funds for landscape conservation (payments for environmental services); Sep 1999 – Sep 2000.
Apprenticeship, State forestry department Bärenfels, Germany, Aug 1995 – May 1996.