In Germany there are general practitioners and specialists (paediatricians, ophthalmologists, dermatologists, etc.). There is a free choice of doctor. If you need to see a doctor, it makes sense to make an appointment in advance. If you experience acute pain, you can of course go to the doctor spontaneously. The city of Bremen has a portal for finding a doctor.
If you urgently need a doctor at night, on weekends or public holidays, please contact the medical emergency and on-call service (telephone numbers see right column). In principle, however, all hospitals help in acute emergencies.
In Germany, medication is only available in pharmacies. There are two groups of medicines: Over-the-counter medicines and prescription medicines for which you need a prescription.
The German Medicines Act is very strict - many medicines require a prescription (e.g. antibiotics) and pharmacies are not allowed to issue them without a prescription from a doctor. This means that a doctor's visit must first be made in order to obtain a prescription for a suitable medication after the examination. The costs for the medication are usually covered by the health insurance, but there is a co-payment obligation, which means a small personal contribution.
If you need medication at night or on weekends, ask about the pharmacy emergency service. You can find out which pharmacy has emergency service in the daily newspaper or on the Internet. The duty schedule for the pharmacy emergency service can also be found at the door of every pharmacy.