Leuschner, J., Schmidt, M., Fernsel, P., Lachmund, D., Boskamp, T., Maass, P.
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) (2019) 35 (11), pp.1940-1947
MOTIVATION: Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a common tool for obtaining low-rank approximations of non-negative data matrices and has been widely used in machine learning, e.g. for supporting feature extraction in high-dimensional classification tasks. In its classical form, NMF is an unsupervised method, i.e. the class labels of the training data are not used when computing the NMF. However, incorporating the classification labels into the NMF algorithms allows to specifically guide them toward the extraction of data patterns relevant for discriminating the respective classes. This approach is particularly suited for the analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data in clinical applications, such as tumor typing and classification, which are among the most challenging tasks in pathology. Thus, we investigate algorithms for extracting tumor-specific spectral patterns from MSI data by NMF methods. RESULTS: In this article, we incorporate a priori class labels into the NMF cost functional by adding appropriate supervised penalty terms. Numerical experiments on a MALDI imaging dataset confirm that the novel supervised NMF methods lead to significantly better classification accuracy and stability as compared with other standard approaches. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATON: gitlab.informatik.uni-bremen.de/digipath/Supervised_NMF_Methods_for_MALDI.git. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford